What does the data actually show about the safety of buying medication online? Is it really dangerous to buy lower cost medication from a pharmacy in another country over the Internet? Do drug companies fund research in this area?
This week, in our continuing quest to get the truth out and for our elected leaders in Congress to take bold action to protect online access to safe and affordable medication, we’re publishing the next section of our report called Online Pharmacies, Personal Drug Importation, and Public Health…
Research and Data about Online Pharmacy Safety
There are only two peer-reviewed studies of foreign and domestic online pharmacies that test drug and online pharmacy safety by comparing those that are members of online pharmacy credentialing programs with others. Their combined findings are published by the B.E Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy in an article called “In Whom We Trust: The Role of Certification Agencies In Online Drug Markets” [“BEJEAP Study”]. Its lead author is Roger Bate, an economist and expert on counterfeit drugs with the American Enterprise Institute. The studies strongly indicate that credentialed international online pharmacies are equally as safe as domestic ones: the results showed that they only sell genuine medication, as well as require valid prescriptions.
In the BEJEAP study, through ‘mystery shopping’ – meaning posing as a consumer making actual purchases from domestic and international online pharmacies – and testing the prescription drugs ordered using a Raman Spectrometer, the authors found that all credentialed U.S. and international online pharmacies sell genuine and safe medication and require prescriptions. In contrast, some non-credentialed sites sent counterfeit drugs and/or did not require a prescription. The credentialing programs tested were those operated by NABP, LegitScript, PharmacyChecker.com and the Canadian International Pharmacy Association (CIPA). The study classified U.S. online pharmacies with approval by NABP and/or LegitScript as tier 1 sites (8 online pharmacies); non-U.S. online pharmacies with approval by PharmacyChecker.com and/or CIPA as tier 2 sites (22 online pharmacies, all approved by PharmacyChecker.com; 12 of the 22 approved by CIPA); and non-credentialed online pharmacies as tier 3 sites (49 online pharmacies).
Three hundred and seventy-eight orders of five medications were purchased from credentialed and non-credentialed online pharmacies. All medications ordered from credentialed online pharmacies, foreign and domestic, were genuine and dispensed pursuant to a valid prescription. Many orders from non-credentialed online pharmacies did not require a valid prescription; however, surprisingly, all products from non-credentialed sites were genuine, too, except Viagra, in which case 23% were not genuine and some contained dangerous ingredients.
The 22 international online pharmacies (tier 2 websites) shown to operate safely in the BEJEAP study – those verified by PharmacyChecker.com – are designated as “unapproved” by LegitScript and “rogue” by NABP.1 The authors of the BEJEAP study concluded: “If some foreign websites sell safe prescription drugs with substantial price discounts but American consumers are guided to buy from U.S. websites only, the FDA could potentially discourage price competition between U.S. and foreign pharmacies and therefore reduce drug affordability within the U.S.” A corollary conclusion is that by discouraging Americans never to use credentialed international online pharmacies, the FDA increases incidents of cost-related prescription non-adherence when U.S. pharmacy prices are the barrier to access.
The BEJEAP report’s data was not mentioned in the GAO report and its lead author, Mr. Bate, was not consulted, despite his well-known expertise in this area. Mr. Bate published a book on counterfeit and substandard pharmaceuticals called “Phake: The Deadly World of Falsified and Substandard Medicines”. He has consulted the FDA on drug safety, including directly with FDA Commissioner Margaret Hamburg and FDA is aware of Mr. Bate’s online pharmacy research.
The lead author of the GAO report participated with Mr. Bate in a series of expert panels organized by the Pew Charitable Trusts Drug Safety Project. Mr. Bate articulated his findings about online pharmacies for the Pew project, specifically noting that pharmacy websites approved by NABP and PharmacyChecker.com, including foreign pharmacies sent only genuine medications.
Unlike GAO’s recent report, the 2004 report by GAO also tested products and prescription requirements of online pharmacies. In “Internet Pharmacies: Some Pose Safety Risks for Consumers and are Unreliable in Their Business Practices,” the GAO found that Canadian online pharmacies all required a prescription, included proper pharmacy labeling and sold genuine medication. One of that report’s authors was Marcia Crosse.
In its 2013 report, the GAO appears to criticize state drug importation programs that, despite FDA warnings that “the agency could not ensure the safety of drugs not approved for sale in the United States,” contributed “to a perception among U.S. consumers that they can readily save money and obtain safe prescription drugs by purchasing them from Canada.” In this section the GAO seems to indicate that Americans are not able to obtain more affordable and safe medication from Canada when GAO’s own data from 2004, which was derived from mystery shopping and independent analysis, concludes that Americans can and do save money safely when purchasing medication online from Canada. Ironically, it’s reasonable to assume that state drug importation programs were pursued in earnest based on findings similar to those of the earlier GAO report or even the actual GAO report itself.
In contrast to the aforementioned peer-reviewed studies and the earlier GAO report, other studies about purchasing medication from online pharmacies focus only on rogue websites, such as those selling prescription drugs without requiring valid prescriptions and/or that don’t publish contact information. Not surprisingly, such studies conclude that rogue online pharmacies are dangerous. Those studies may help to understand and demonstrate the dangers presented by Internet drug sales, but do not help in determining which online pharmacies are safe and a clear benefit to consumers.
One such study is called “Internet-Ordered Viagra (Sildenafil Citrate) Is Rarely Genuine.” The study is financed and conducted by drug company Pfizer. None of the websites Pfizer assessed required consumers to submit a valid prescription based on a physical exam (but two did require online or “remote” consultations, which is legal in some states). Not surprisingly, the prescription requirement assessment concluded that no websites required a valid prescription, meaning based on a physical exam. The costs per pill were between $3.28 and $33.00. The products were shipped from Hong Kong (11 sites), United States (6 sites), United Kingdom (2 sites), Canada (1 site), China (1 site), and India (1 site). Seventy-seven percent of the products received were counterfeit; 18% authentic; 5% foreign generics (generic version approved in another country) that are not approved in the U.S.
The Pfizer study concludes “Internet sites claiming to sell authentic Viagra shipped counterfeit medication 77% of the time; counterfeits usually came from non-U.S. addresses and had 30%-50% of the labeled API [active pharmaceutical ingredients] claim. Caution is warranted when purchasing Viagra via the Internet.” While most of these sites were foreign-based, none were credentialed or required a prescription based on an in-person consultation with a licensed prescriber. The incidence of counterfeits received in Pfizer’s study appears very high, even compared to other studies that procure medications from non-credentialed online pharmacies. This research, and other studies like it, shows there are many rogue online pharmacies that sell counterfeit Viagra, but it does not negate the existence of safe international online pharmacies.